Gojong of Korea
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|Gojong of Korea|
|Emperor Emeritus of Korea|
|Reign||20 July 1907 – 29 August 1910|
|Emperor of Korea|
|Reign||13 October 1897 – 19 July 1907|
|Predecessor||Himself as the king of Joseon|
|King of Joseon|
|Reign||21 January 1864 – 13 October 1897|
|Successor||As the Emperor of Korea|
|Born||8 September 1852|
Unhyeon Palace, Hanseong, Joseon
|Died||21 January 1919 (aged 66)|
Deoksu Palace, Keijō, Japanese Korea
Prince Imperial Ui
Crown Prince Euimin
|House||House of Yi|
|Mother||Grand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok of the Yeoheung Min clan|
|Revised Romanization||Gojong Gwangmuje (short Gojong)|
|McCune–Reischauer||Kojong Kwangmuje (short Kojong)|
이명복, later 이희
李命福, later 李㷩
|Revised Romanization||I Myeong-bok, later I Hui|
|McCune–Reischauer||Yi Myŏng-bok, later Yi Hŭi|
Gojong (Korean: 고종; Hanja: 高宗; RR: Gojong; MR: Kojong), the Emperor Gwangmu (Korean: 광무제; Hanja: 光武帝; RR: Gwangmuje; MR: Kwangmuje; 8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the last King of Joseon and the first Emperor of Korea.
Gojong took the Joseon throne in early 1864 when he was still a child. As a minor, his father, the Heungseon Daewongun (or more commonly, the Daewongun), ruled as regent for him until Gojong reached adulthood.
During the mid-1860s, the Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and was responsible for the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French invasion and the United States expedition to Korea in 1871. The early years of the Daewongun's rule also witnessed a concerted effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During the Daewongun's reign, Joseon factional politics, the Seowons (private academies that often doubled as epicenters of factional power), and the power wielded by the Andong Kim clan all completely disappeared as political forces within Korean state life.
In 1873, Gojong announced his assumption of direct royal rule. In November 1874, with the retirement of the Heungseon Daewongun, Gojong's consort, Queen Min (posthumously known as Empress Myeongseong), gained complete control over the court, filling senior court positions with members of her family. This angered Heungseon Daewongun, who was exiled from the court. Some relatives of Heungseon Daewongun and members of the Southerner faction plotted a coup.
External pressures and unequal treaties
In the 19th century, tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895. Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology and secured a victory against Joseon forces in Ganghwa Island, forcing Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and other natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese Imperial expansion in East Asia.
The French campaign against Korea of 1866, the United States expedition to Korea in 1871, and the Ganghwa Island incident all put pressure on many of Joseon's officials, including King Gojong.
The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed between Korea and a foreign country; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea and forced the Korean government to open three ports, Busan, Incheon, and Wonsan, to Japanese and foreign trade. With the signing of its first unequal treaty, Korea became easy prey for many imperialistic powers, and later the treaty led to Korea being annexed by Japan.
Imo Rebellion and Gapsin Coup
King Gojong began to rely on a new paid army(byeolgigun) of rifle-equipped soldiers. Unlike the well-treated new army, the old army had not received a salary for 13 months. Then the old army received a month's salary, which was in poor condition and in short supply. As a result, the Old Army caused a riot and Heungseon Daewongun seized power. However Chinese troops, led by the Qing Chinese general Yuan Shikai, soon abducted the Daewongun and took him to China, thus foiling his return to power. Four years later the Daewongun returned to Korea.
During the Imo incident when Queen Min was taking refuge in her relative’s villa, Lady Seon-yeong of the Yeongwol Eom clan had shown extreme devotion towards King Gojong. Because of her loyalty, he promoted her to the Jimil Sanggung; 5th senior rank of Women of the Internal Court. When Queen Min came back, she had Lady Seon-yeong banished from the royal palace when she discovered the court lady wearing Gojong’s clothing at the age of 32 in 1885. The court lady’s position was changed to Seoin.
On 4 December 1884, five revolutionaries initiated the Gapsin Coup, an attempted coup d'état, by leading a small anti-old minister army, attempting to detain King Gojong and Queen Min. The coup failed after 3 days. Some of its leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, and others were executed.
Widespread poverty presented significant challenges to the 19th century Joseon Dynasty. One indication of this poverty was the poor conditions of life suffered by those of the lower classes, who often had little to eat and lived in little more than run-down shanties lined along roads of dirt and mud. Several factors, including famine, poverty, high taxes, and corruption among the ruling class, led to many notable peasant revolts in the 19th century. King Gojong's predecessors had suppressed an 1811–1812 revolt in the Pyeongan Province, led by Hong Gyeong-nae.
In 1894, another major revolt, the Donghak Peasant Revolution took hold as an anti-government, anti-yangban, and anti-foreign campaign. To suppress the rebellion, the Joseon government requested military aid from Japan, thus deepening Japanese claims to Korea as a protectorate. The revolution ultimately failed, but many of the peasants' grievances were later addressed with the Gabo Reform.
The assassination of Queen Min
In 1895, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Gorō orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Gyeongbokgung in Seoul, which was under guard by Korean troops sympathetic to the Japanese, and the Queen was killed in the palace. The Queen had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support.
Anti-Japanese sentiments in Korea
By 1895 Japan had won the First Sino-Japanese War, gaining much more influence over the Korean government. The Gabo reforms and the assassination of the Queen also stirred controversy in Korea, fomenting Korean anti-Japanese sentiments.
Some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom. These armies were preceded by the Donghak movement and succeeded by various Korean independence movements.
Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation
On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung to the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they governed for about one year, an event known as the Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation. After Queen Min died, Lady Seon-yeong re-entered the palace as Gwi-in Eom and lived with Gojong and the crown prince in the Russian legation where she gave birth to Crown Prince Euimin in 1897. Her status had changed to Sunbin and Sunbi, but was later given the title of Imperial Noble Consort Sunheon of the Yeongwol Eom clan.
Proclamation of empire
In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyeongungung (modern-day Deoksugung). There he proclaimed the founding of the Empire of Korea, officially redesignated the national title as such, and declared a new era name Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무, Hanja: 光武) (meaning, "shining and martial"). This effectively ended Korea's historic subordination to the Qing empire which Korea had acknowledged since the fall of the Ming Dynasty, King Gojong took the title of Gwangmu Emperor and became the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Empire of Korea.
This marked the end of the traditional Chinese tributary system in the Far East. Adopting the status of Empire meant that Korea was declaring itself the co-equal of Qing China, that it was independent of it and, at least nominally, it implemented the "full and complete" independence of Korea as recognized in 1895.
When Heungseon Daewongun died in 1898, Emperor Gwangmu refused to attend the funeral of his father as the relationship between father and son was broken. But it also said that when the Emperor looked over the palace wall, his cries were heard.
Since the seat of the empress was vacant, Gojong wanted to make Imperial Noble Consort Sunheon his empress, but this was opposed by Lee Jun-yong and Korean refugees who created a movement to stop the action, in which they succeeded. Although not empress, she persuaded and recommended Yun Yong-seon’s adoptive granddaughter, Lady Jeongsun of the Haepyeong Yun clan, as wife for the crown prince since she remembered the grace and assistance she received from Yun during her banishment.
Emperor of Korea
Gojong proclaimed the Korean Empire in October 1897 to justify the country's ending of its traditional alliance with China. He tried to promote the Gwangmu Reform, which aimed at modernizing and industrializing the new empire.
On September 12th (July 25th in the lunar calendar) of 1898, the emperor was the target of a failed assassination attempt by interpreter Kim hong-ryuk (金鴻陸), who had lost his political power during the Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation, by poisoning the coffee of the emperor and the prince with opium.
In 1904-1905, the Japan was the victor in the Russo-Japanese War. Following the Protectorate Treaty of 1905 between Korea and Japan, which stripped Korea of its rights as an independent nation, Gojong sent representatives to the Hague Peace Convention of 1907 to try to re-assert his sovereignty over Korea. Although the Korean representatives were blocked by the Japanese delegates, they did not give up, and later held interviews with newspapers.
One representative[who?] warned of Japanese ambitions in Asia:
"The United States does not realize what Japan's policy in the Far East is and what it portends for the American people. The Japanese adopted a policy that in the end will give her complete control over commerce and industry in the Far East. Japan is bitter against the United States and against Great Britain. If the United States does not watch Japan closely she will force the Americans and the English out of the Far East."
As a result, Gojong was forced to abdicate by the Japanese, and Gojong's son Sunjong succeeded him to the throne.
During Sunjong's reign, the kingdom of Joseon ended with the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910.
After abdicating, Emperor Gojong was confined to the Deoksu Palace. On 22 August 1910, the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan under the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. In the treaty, Gojong lost his title as a former emperor; instead, he received a new title, "King Emeritus Yi of Deoksu" (徳寿宮李太王), and was recognized as a member of the imperial family of Japan.
Gojong died suddenly on 21 January 1919 at Deoksugung Palace at the age of 66. There is much speculation that he was killed by a poison administered by Japanese officials, an idea that gained wide circulation and acceptance at the time of his death. His death and subsequent funeral proved a catalyst for the March First Movement for Korean independence from Japanese rule. He is buried with his wife at the imperial tomb of Hongneung (홍릉, 洪陵) in the city of Namyangju.
- Yi Ha-Eung, King Heungseon (21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898) (흥선왕 이하응)
- Adoptive Father: Yi Yeong, King Munjo of Joseon (18 September 1809 – 25 June 1830) (조선의 문조 이영)
- Paternal Grandfather: Yi Gu, Prince Namyeon (22 August 1788 – 19 March 1836) (이구 남연군)
- Paternal Grandmother: Princess Consort Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (26 June 1788 – 1831) (군부인 여흥민씨, 驪興府大夫人 閔氏)
- Yi Ha-Eung, King Heungseon (21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898) (흥선왕 이하응)
- Queen Sunmok of the Yeoheung Min clan (3 February 1818 – 8 January 1898) (순목왕비 민씨)
- Adoptive Mother: Queen Shinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan (21 January 1809 - 4 June 1890) (신정왕후 조씨)
- Maternal Grandfather: Min Chi-Gu (1795 – 14 December 1874) (민치구, 閔致久)
- Maternal Grandmother: Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (? – 17 November 1873) (정경부인 전주이씨, 貞敬夫人 全州李氏)
- Queen Sunmok of the Yeoheung Min clan (3 February 1818 – 8 January 1898) (순목왕비 민씨)
- Younger sister: Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (이씨, 李氏) (? - 1869); married Jo Kyeong-ho of the Imcheon Jo clan (조경호, 趙慶鎬) (1839 - 1914) (본관: 임천 조씨, 林川趙氏)
- Younger sister: Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (이씨, 李氏) (? - 1899); married Jo Jung-gu of the Pungyang Jo clan (조정구, 趙鼎九) (1860 - 1926) (본관: 풍양 조씨, 豐壤 趙氏)
- Nephew: Jo Nam-seung (조남승, 趙南升)
- Nephew: Jo Nam-ik (조남익, 趙南益)
- Niece: Jo Gye-jin (조계진, 趙啓珍)
- Younger half-sister: Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (이씨, 李氏) (? - 1869); married Lee Yun-yong of the Ubong Lee clan (1854 - 8 September 1939) (본관: 우봉 이씨, 牛峰李氏)
- Half-Nephew: Lee Myeong-gu (이명구, 李明九)
- Consorts and their Respective Issue(s):
- Min Ja-yeong, Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan (17 November 1851 – 8 October 1895) (명성황후 민자영 민씨)[a]
- Eom Seon-yeong, Imperial Noble Consort Sunheon of the Yeongwol Eom clan (2 February 1854 – 20 July 1911) (순헌황귀비 엄선영 엄씨)[f][g]
- Yang Chun-gi, Imperial Consort Boknyeong Gwi-in of the Cheongju Yang clan (27 September 1882 – 30 May 1929) (복녕당 귀인 양씨)
- Princess Deokhye (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) (덕혜옹주)
- Imperial Consort Yeongbo Gwi-in of the Gyeongju Yi clan (1849 – 17 December 1928) (영보당귀인 이씨)[i]
- Yi Seon, Prince Wanhwa (16 April 1868 – 12 January 1880) (이선 완화군)[j]
- Unnamed daughter (1871 – 1872)
- Imperial Consort Gwi-in of the Deoksu Jang clan (귀인 장씨)
- Imperial Consort Gwanghwa Gwi-in of the Lee clan (1885 – 10 November 1965) (광화당 귀인 이씨)[l]
- Prince Yi Yuk (1914 – 1915) (이육)[m]
- Unnamed daughter
- Imperial Consort Bohyeon Gwi-in of the Haeju Jeong clan (23 February 1882 – 1943) (보현당 귀인 정씨)
- Prince Yi U (20 August 1915 – 25 July 1916) (이우)
- Imperial Consort Naean Gwi-in of the Lee clan (1847 – 13 February 1914) (내안당 귀인 이씨)
- Unnamed daughter (1879 – 1880)
- Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan of Samchuk Hall (1890 – 23 September 1970) (삼축당 김씨)[n]
- Lady Kim of the Gwangsan Kim clan of Jeonghwa Hall (정화당 상궁 김씨)
- Court Lady Seo (상궁 서씨)
- Court Lady Kim (상궁 김씨)[o]
- Court Lady Jang (궁인 장씨)
- Korean honours
- Founder and Sovereign of the Grand Order of the Golden Ruler – 17 April 1900
- Founder and Sovereign of the Grand Order of the Auspicious Stars – 17 April 1900
- Founder and Sovereign of the Grand Order of the Plum Blossoms – 17 April 1900
- Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the National Crest – 17 April 1900
- Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Purple Falcon – 16 April 1901
- Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Eight Trigrams – 16 April 1901
- Grand Cordon of the Grand Order of the Auspicious Phoenix – 1907
- Foreign honours
- Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus – 23 July 1895
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour – 23 July 1895
- Japan: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum – 23 March 1897
- United Kingdom: Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire – 17 December 1900
- Spain: Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III, with Collar – 1900
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Leopold – 23 March 1901
- China: Order of the Double Dragon, Class I Grade I – 1 December 1903
- Russia: Knight of the Order of St. Stanislaus, 1st Class – 1 December 1903
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant – 31 August 1903
- German Empire: Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle – 20 March 1904
|Ancestors of Emperor Gojong|
In popular culture
- Portrayed by Lee Jin-woo and Lee Joon in the 2001-2002 KBS2 TV series Empress Myeongseong.
- Portrayed by Kim Young-min in the 2009 film The Sword with No Name.
- Portrayed by Choi Jong-hwan in the 2010 SBS TV series Jejungwon.
- Portrayed by Park Hee-soon in the 2012 film Gabi.
- Portrayed by Lee Min-woo in the 2014 KBS2 TV series Gunman in Joseon.
- Portrayed by Park Min-sang in the 2016 film The Map Against The World.
- Portrayed by Baek Yoon-sik in the 2016 film The Last Princess.
- Portrayed by Kang Yi-seok and Lee Seung-joon in the 2018 tvN TV series Mr. Sunshine.
- List of Korea-related topics
- History of Korea
- Rulers of Korea
- Heungseon Daewongun
- Empress Myeongseong
- List of Head of State and Government deposed by foreign power in the 20th and 21st century
- She was later given the posthumous title of Taehwanghu (태황후).
- He only lived for 4 days.
- She only lived for 222 days (about 7 months, 1 week, 5 days).
- He only lived for 14 days (2 weeks).
- He only lived for 105 days (about 3 months, 2 weeks, 1 day).
- She was later given the posthumous title of 순헌황귀비 (Sunheon Hwang-Gwi-bi "Sunheon, Imperial Concubine of the Highest Rank").
- Her full name was Eom Seon-yeong (엄선영), and she was the daughter of Eom Jin-sam (엄진삼) and Jeung Chan-jeong (증찬정).
- Gojong's seventh son. He married Princess Masako Nashimotonomiya of Japan, daughter of Prince Morimasa Nashimotonomiya of Japan. During the Korean Empire, he was named "Prince Yeong" (영친왕).
- Her full name was Yi Soon-a (이순아).
- During the Korean Empire, he was posthumously named as "Prince Wan" (완친왕).
- During the Korean Empire, he was named "Prince Ui" (의친왕). He married Kim Su-deok (who became Princess Deogin), daughter of Baron Kim Sa-jun.
- Her whole name is Lee Wan-deok (이완덕) of the Gwanghwa Hall.
- Other records, however, say that he lived from 1906–1908.
- Her whole name is Kim Ok-gi (김옥기).
- Her whole name is Kim Chung-yeon (김충연).
- 高宗太皇帝行狀 Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Lee Jae-min (8 September 2010). "Treaty as prelude to annexation". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "임오군란". terms.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- Yoon Hyo-jeong 《대한제국아 망해라》(박광희 국역, 다산초당, 2010) Pg. 337
- Lankov, Andrei; Kim EunHaeng (2007). The Dawn of Modern Korea. 384-12 Seokyo-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul, South Korea, 121-893: EunHaeng Namu. p. 47. ISBN 978-89-5660-214-1.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "Hong Kyŏng-nae Rebellion". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010.
- Kim Hyungyoon, "Jangheung, Where Korean Literature Is Deeply Rooted"
- 우리곁에 살아 있는 역사의 맥박과 숨결 월간조선 2001년 3월호
- 나각순, 승상배, 이창훈, 《운현궁과 흥선대원군》 (종로문화원, 2000) 207페이지
- "김홍륙독차사건(金鴻陸毒茶事件) - 한국민족문화대백과사전".
- Neff, Robert (5 March 2019). "Emperor's death leads to independence movement". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- 刑部芳則 (2017). 明治時代の勲章外交儀礼 (PDF) (in Japanese). 明治聖徳記念学会紀要. p. 149.
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 403
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 466. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
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